Measurement Uncertainty in Network Analyzers: Differential Error Analysis of Error Models Part 2: Full Two-Port Calibration

1 3, N.I. Yannopoulou, P.E. Zimourtopoulos


Since S–parameter measurements without uncertainty cannot claim any credibility, the uncertainties in full two–port Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) measurements were estimated using total complex differentials (Total Differential Errors). To express precisely a comparison relation between complex differential errors, their differential error regions (DERs) were used. To demonstrate  the  method  in the most accurate case of a direct zero–length thru, practical results are presented for commonly used Z–parameters of a simple, two–port, DC resistive T–network, which was built and tested against frequency with a VNA measurement system extended by two lengthy transmission lines.

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